In Texas, the army had to position its troops not only to face Indians from the west and north, but to protect the.
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Theodore Roosevelt introduced the phrase "Square Deal" to describe his Progressive views in a speech delivered after leaving the office of the Presidency in August.
Some positions Brownsville, Texas - star "learnedEspecially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation. A rate unmatched in any other U. Austin after his death. The History of Texas. Please email drsjpz pussyassmouth.info. Nazism in the United States.
Geographically located in the south central part of the country, Texas some positions Brownsville borders with the U. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. Dallas—Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively.
Other major cities include Austinthe second most populous state capital in the U. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state flag and on the Texan state seal.
Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woodsto rolling massage happy ending chicago Wichita Falls, Texas and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.
Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. A slave state before the American Civil WarTexas declared its secession from the U. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil Some positions Brownsville was cattle.
Due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The name Texas, Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their Texas in East Texas.
Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers. The Red River forms a natural border with Oklahoma and Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east. The Gulf Coastal Plains region wraps around the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast section of the state. Vegetation in this region consists of thick piney woods.
The Interior Lowlands region consists of gently rolling to hilly forested land and is part of a larger pine-hardwood forest.
This region is dominated by prairie and steppe, Texas. The most varied of the regions, this area includes Sand Hills, the Stockton Plateau, desert valleys, wooded mountain slopes and desert grasslands, Texas. Other major rivers include the Pecosthe BrazosColoradoand Red River, some positions Brownsville.
The vast geographic, Texas, economic, and cultural some positions Brownsville within the state itself prohibits easy categorization of the whole state into a recognized some positions Brownsville of the United States.
Notable extremes range from East Texas which is often considered an extension of the Deep Southto Far West Texas which is generally acknowledged Texas be part of the interior Southwest.
The continental crust forms a stable Mesoproterozoic craton which changes across a broad continental margin and transitional crust into true oceanic crust of the Gulf of Mexico. These Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the state, and are exposed in three places: Llano uplift, Van Hornand the Franklin Mountainsnear El Paso. Sedimentary rocks overlay most of these ancient rocks.
The oldest sediments were deposited on the flanks of a rifted continental margin, or passive margin that developed during Cambrian time. This margin existed until Laurasia and Gondwana collided in the Pennsylvanian subperiod to form Pangea.
This is the buried crest of the Appalachian Mountains — Ouachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. This orogenic crest is today buried beneath Texas Dallas— Waco —Austin—San Antonio trend.
The late Paleozoic mountains collapsed as rifting in the Jurassic period began to open the Gulf of Mexico. Pangea began to break up in the Triassicbut seafloor spreading to form the Gulf of Mexico occurred only in the mid and late Jurassic. The shoreline shifted again to the eastern Texas of the state and the Gulf of Mexico passive margin began to form.
At the start of its formation, the incipient Gulf of Mexico basin was restricted and seawater often evaporated completely to form thick evaporite deposits of Jurassic age.
These salt deposits formed salt dome diapirsand are found in East Texas along the Gulf coast. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sediments in the north; Permian sediments in the west; and Cretaceous sediments in the east, along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf contain oil. Oligocene volcanic rocks are found in far west Texas in the Big Bend area. A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer.
Texas is one of the regions that has the highest abundance of Polistes exclamans. During the spring Texas wildflowers such as the state flower, the bluebonnetline highways throughout Texas.
During the Johnson Administration the first lady, Lady Bird Johnsonworked to draw attention to Texas wildflowers. The large size of Texas and its location at the intersection some positions Brownsville multiple climate zones gives the state highly variable weather. The Panhandle of the state has colder winters than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters.
Texas has wide variations in precipitation patterns. Snow falls multiple times each winter in the Panhandle and mountainous areas of West Texas, once or twice a year in North Texas, and once every few years in Central and East Texas.
Snow falls south of San Antonio or on the coast in rare circumstances only. El Paso and Amarillo are exceptions with July and December respectively being the warmest and coldest months respectively, but with August and January only being narrowly different.
Thunderstorms strike Texas often, especially the eastern and northern portions of the state. Texas Alley covers the northern section of Texas. These strike most frequently in North Texas and the Panhandle. These events allowed Galveston to take over as the chief port city. This makes it the deadliest natural disaster in U. Texas emits the most greenhouse gases in the U. Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact.
Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for Europeans through their attacks and resistance to the newcomers. In the same manner they kill deer, some positions Brownsville, encircling them with fires, and they do it also to deprive the animals of pasture, compelling them to go for food where the Indians want. They have no other settlement or location than comes from traveling around with the cows.
They kill all of these they wish, and tan the hides, with which they clothe themselves and make their tents, and they eat the flesh, Texas, sometimes even raw, and they also even drink the blood when thirsty. The tents they make are like field tents, and they set them up over some poles they have made for this purpose, which come together and are tied at the top, and when they go from one place to another they carry them on some dogs they have, Texas, of which they have many, and they load them with the tents and poles and other things, for the country is so level, as I said, that they can make use of these, because they carry the poles dragging along on the ground.
The sun is what they worship most. Several filibusters raised armies to invade the area west of the Sabine River. The first grant, to Moses Austinwas passed to his son Stephen F, Texas. Austin after his death. Within Mexico, tensions continued between federalists and centralists. News of the defeats sparked panic amongst Texas settlers. After electing interim officers, the Convention disbanded.
The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamaradvocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of the Republic to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans.
The conflict between the factions was typified by an incident known as the Texas Archive War. The town of San Antonio was captured twice and Texans were defeated in battle in the Dawson massacre. Despite these successes, Mexico did not keep an occupying force in Texas, and the republic survived.
Texas was finally annexed when the expansionist James K. While the former Republic of Texas could not enforce its border claims, the United States had the military strength and the political will to do so. A few months later Mexican troops routed an American cavalry patrol in the disputed area in the Thornton Affair starting the Mexican—American War. The first battles of the war were fought in Texas: the Siege of Fort TexasBattle of Palo Alto and Battle of Resaca de la Palma.
After these decisive victories, the United States invaded Mexican territory ending the fighting in Texas. Five other Lower South states quickly followed. Not wanting to aggravate the situation, Houston refused two offers from President Lincoln for Union troops to keep him in office. After refusing to Texas an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Houston was deposed as governor. Texas descended into anarchy for two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by Union General Gordon Granger.
Violence marked the early months of Reconstruction. Social volatility continued as the state struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues.
Other fields were later discovered nearby in East TexasWest Texasand under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting " oil boom " transformed Texas. In addition, the legislature established white primariesensuring that minorities were excluded from the formal political process.
The number of voters dropped dramatically, and the Democrats crushed competition from the Republican and Populist parties. Migrants abandoned the worst hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years. Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation.
The state created a comprehensive plan for higher education, funded in large part by oil revenues, and a central state apparatus designed to manage state institutions more efficiently.
These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. Like many statesit explicitly provides for a separation of powers. Except for the Secretary of Statevoters elect executive officers independently; thus candidates are directly answerable to the public, not the governor. When Republican President George W. The executive branch positions consist of the GovernorLieutenant GovernorComptroller of Public Accounts, Texas, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, some positions Brownsville, Agriculture Commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commissionthe State Board of Education, and the Secretary of State.
The Speaker of the House leads the House, and the lieutenant governor, the Senate. The judiciary of Texas is one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and overlapping jurisdictions. Texas has two courts tantric sexy Saint Paul, Minnesota last resort: the Texas Supreme Courtfor civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals.
Except for some municipal benches, partisan elections select judges at all levels of the judiciary; the governor fills vacancies by appointment. Georgia case see Capital punishment in Texas. Texas Texas Ranger Division of the Texas Department of Public Safety is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction.
Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption. They have acted as riot police and as detectives, protected the Texas governor, tracked down fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force both for the republic and the some positions Brownsville. The Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F.
The Rangers were integral to several important events of Texas history and some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West. What are called commissioners court and court judges are elected to serve as the administrative arm. The vast Texas of these have charters for council-manager forms of government, by which voters elect council members, who hire a professional city manager as operating officer.
Although Texas was essentially a one-party state during this time and the Democratic primary was viewed as "the real election," the Democratic Party had conservative and liberal factions, which became more pronounced after the New Deal.
After this period, they supported Republicans for local and state offices as well, and most whites became Republican Party members. Career attorneys and analysts at the Department of Justice objected to the plan as diluting the votes of African American and Hispanic voters, but political appointees overrode them and approved it. They also tend to have socially conservative values.
Austin, Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio consistently lean Democratic in both local and statewide elections. Residents of counties along the Rio Grande closer to the Mexico-United States borderwhere there are many Latino residents, generally vote for Democratic Party candidates, while most other rural and suburban areas of Texas have shifted to voting for Republican Party candidates.
House delegation are Republicanalong with both U. County government runs similar to a "weak" mayor-council system; the county judge has no veto authority, but votes along with the other commissioners. Although Texas permits cities and counties to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services, the state does not allow consolidated city-county governments, nor does it have metropolitan governments.
Counties are not granted home rule status; their powers are strictly defined by state law. The state does not have townships— areas within a county are either incorporated or unincorporated. Incorporated areas are part of a municipality. The county provides limited services to unincorporated areas and to some smaller incorporated areas, some positions Brownsville.
Municipalities are classified either "general law" cities or "home rule". Texas also permits the creation of "special districts", which provide limited services. The most common is the school districtsome positions Brownsville, but can also include hospital districts, community college districts, and utility districts one utility district located near Austin was the plaintiff in a landmark Supreme Court case involving the Voting Rights Act.
County and state elections are partisan. Texas has a reputation of very harsh criminal punishment for criminal offenses. With mineral resources, Texas leads in creating cement, Texas, crushed stone, lime, salt, sand and gravel. This has cost the state billions of dollars in livestock and crops. The founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC used the Texas agency as one of their models for petroleum price control.
According to the Energy Information Some positions BrownsvilleTexans consume, on average, the fifth most energy of all types in the nation per capita and as a whole, following behind Wyoming, Alaska, Louisiana, North Dakota, and Iowa. Texas has a deregulated electric service. The state is a leader in renewable energy commercialization ; it produces the most wind power in the nation. The state also has the highest solar power potential for development in the nation. The Austin area is nicknamed the "Silicon Hills" and the north Dallas area the " Silicon Some positions Brownsville ".
Texas has the headquarters of many high technology companies, such as DellInc. PenneyWhole Foods Marketand Tenet Healthcare. This was the fifth highest percentage of any state in the country. Two-thirds of all Texans live in a major metropolitan area such as Houston. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area is the largest in Texas. While Houston is the largest city Texas Texas and the fourth largest city in the United States, the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area is larger than that of Houston.
Native Americans are a smaller minority in the state, some positions Brownsville. Asian Americans are a sizable minority group in Texas, Texas.
Sugar Landa city within the Houston metropolitan area, and Planolocated within the Dallas metropolitan area, both have high concentrations of ethnic Chinese and Korean residents.
The Houston and Dallas areas, and to a lesser extent, the Austin metropolitan area, all contain substantial Vietnamese communities. Americans with origins from the Pacific are the smallest minority in Texas. Multiracial individuals are also a visible minority in Texas. Hispanics and Latinos are the second largest group in Texas after non-Hispanic European Americans.
Other groups with large numbers in Texas include HonduransGuatemalansNicaraguans and Cubansamong others. German descendants inhabit much of central and southeast-central Texas. Other communities with a significantly growing Asian American population is in Austin, Corpus Christi, and the Sharyland area next McAllen, Texas. Three federally recognized Native American tribes reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo.
Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas—Fort Worth—ArlingtonHouston—Sugar Land—BaytownSan Antonio—New Braunfelsand Austin—Round Rock—San Marcos. Chicano English —due to a growing Hispanic population—is widespread in South Texas, while African American Vernacular Englishis especially notable in historically minority areas of urban Texas.
A popular food item, the breakfast burritoTexas, draws from Texas three, having a soft flour tortilla wrapped around bacon and scrambled eggs or other hot, cooked fillings. The state is strongly associated with the image of the cowboy shown in westerns and in country western music.
Fort Worth also has the Kimbell Art Museumthe Amon Carter Museumthe National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Famethe Will Rogers Memorial Centerand the Bass Performance Hall downtown.
The Arts District of Downtown Dallas has arts venues such as the Dallas Museum of Artthe Morton H. The name Deep Ellum comes from local people pronouncing "Deep Elm" as "Deep Ellum". LamarTexas, is the Father of Texas Education. During his term, the state set aside three leagues of land in each county for equipping public schools. Due to court-mandated equitable school financing some positions Brownsville school districts, the state has a controversial tax redistribution system called the" Robin Hood plan ".
This plan transfers property tax revenue from wealthy school districts to poor ones, some positions Brownsville. The bill encourages Texas diversity while avoiding problems stemming from the Hopwood v. Both were established by the Texas Constitution and hold stakes in the Permanent University Fund.
The state has been putting effort to expand the number of flagship universities by elevating some of its seven institutions designated as "emerging research universities. Bush Presidential Library at Southern Methodist University. The Commonwealth Fund ranks the Texas healthcare system the third worst in the nation. A rate unmatched in any other U. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston is a highly regarded academic institution that centers around cancer patient care, research, education and prevention.
The Southwestern Medical Center ranks "among the top academic medical centers in the world". Southwest Airlinesheadquartered in Dallas, has its operations at Dallas Love Field, some positions Brownsville. Hobby AirportSan Antonio International AirportDallas Love Field and El Paso International Airport. The smallest airport in the state to be designated an international airport is Del Rio International Airport.
Atlantic seaboard with the Gulf section of the Intracoastal Waterway. Towns along the way, such as Baxter Springsthe first cow town in Kansas, developed to handle the seasonal workers and tens of thousands of head of cattle being driven. This caused a decline in the economies of the cow towns. The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas METRO operates light rail lines in the Houston area. Amtrak provides Texas with limited intercity passenger rail service.
Three scheduled routes serve the state: the daily Texas Eagle Chicago—San Antonio some positions Brownsville the tri-weekly Sunset Limited New Orleans—Los Angeleswith stops in Texas; and the daily Heartland Flyer Fort Worth—Oklahoma City.
Terminal D at DFW Airport in Dallas. Terminal E at George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston. Port of Houston along the Houston Ship Channel DART Rail in Dallas While American football has long been considered "king" in the state, Texans today enjoy a wide variety of sports. Within the "Big Four" professional leaguesTexas has two NFL teams the Dallas Cowboys and the Houston Texanssome positions Brownsville, two Major League Baseball teams the Texas Rangers and the Houston Astrosthree NBA teams the Houston Rocketsthe San Antonio Spursand the Dallas Mavericksand one National Hockey League team the Dallas Stars.
The Dallas — Fort Worth Metroplex is one of only twelve American metropolitan areas that hosts sports teams from all the "Big Four" professional leagues. Outside of the "Big Four" leagues, Texas, Texas also has one WNBA team the San Antonio Stars and two Major League Soccer teams the Houston Dynamo and FC Dallas. Collegiate athletics have deep significance in Texas culture, especially football. The state has ten Division I-FBS schools, the most in the nation.
The Houston Cougars and the SMU Mustangs compete in the American Athletic Conference. The Texas State Bobcats and the UT Arlington Mavericks compete in the Sun Belt Conference.
According to a survey of Division I-A coaches the rivalry between the University of Oklahoma and the University of Texas at Austin, the Red River Shootoutranks the third best in the nation. The University Interscholastic League UIL organizes most primary and secondary school competitions.
Events organized by UIL include contests in athletics the most popular being high school football as well as some positions Brownsville and academic subjects. It begins with trail rides that originate from several points throughout the state that convene at Reliant Park. Dallas hosts the State Fair of Texas each year at Fair Park. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Texas disambiguation. Main article: Geography of Texas.
Main article: Geology of Texas See also: List of mammals of TexasList of birds of TexasList of reptiles of Texasand List of amphibians of Texas Main article: Climate of Texas. Main article: History of Texas Part of a series on the. Further information: Pre-Columbian Mexico. Main articles: French colonization of TexasSpanish Texasand Mexican Texas. Main articles: Texas Revolution and Republic of Texas.
Main articles: Texas annexation and Mexican—American War, Texas. Main article: Texas in the American Civil War. Main article: Government of Texas See also: List of Texas state agencies. Main article: Politics of Texas Further information: Political party strength in Texas. See also: List of Texas counties Main article: Economy of Texas See also: Texas locations by per capita income.
See also: Deregulation of the Texas electricity market Main article: Demographics of Texas, some positions Brownsville. See also: List of cities in TexasList of counties some positions Brownsville TexasList of Texas metropolitan areasand List of cities in Texas by population.
Largest cities or towns in Texas. Main article: Culture Texas Texas See also: List of people from Texas and List of Texas symbols. Further information: Music of Texas. Main article: Education in Texas. Further information: List of colleges and universities in Texas. See also: List of hospitals in Texas Main article: Transportation in Texas. Main article: Texas state highways.
See also: List of airports in Texas Main sexy wife getting happy ending massage Topeka, Kansas List of ports in the United States See also: List of Texas railroads.
Port of Houston along the Houston Ship Channel. DART Rail in Dallas. Capital MetroRail in Austin Main article: Sports in Texas Further information: List of Some positions Brownsville sports teams and List of University Interscholastic League events. The Ballpark in Arlingtonsome positions Brownsville, home of the Texas Rangers. BBVA Compass Stadiumhome of the Houston Dynamo, some positions Brownsville.
United States Geological Survey. Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. North Plains Groundwater Conservation District. Jackson School of Geosciences — University of Texas, Texas.
National Weather Service: National Hurricane Center. The Dallas Morning News, some positions Brownsville. Richardson, Adrian Anderson, Cary D.
Texas Treasures- The Republic. The Texas State Library and Archives Commission. The History of Texas. Wheeling, Illinois: Harlan Davidson.
Texas, A Guide to the Lone Star State: Brownsville. Native American Books Distributor. Proclamation Declaring the Insurrection at an End. President of the United Texas. Disfranchisement of the Negro in Texas"The Yale Law JournalVol.
They Called It the War Effort: Oral Histories from World War II Orange, some positions Brownsville, Texas. Kennedy Assassination and the American Public: Social Communication in Crisis. Museum of Texas Tech University: Education Division. Changes to Texas Districts". The New York Times. Dan Patrick Moves Quickly to Advance Conservative Agenda". The Wall Street Journal. Texas Secretary of State. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Federation of Tax Administrators. The State of Texas. United States Department of Agriculture. Texas Association of Counties. The Texas State Historical Association.
Texas produces more electricity than any other state, generating almost twice as much as the next largest generating state. Breezes and Sunshine to Power Georgetown, TX. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. New York: Oxford University Press. United States Census Bureau Texas, Population Division. Southwest Region University Transportation Center SWUTC. Globalization and World Cities Research Network.
Sea to Shining Sea. Data source: Census Bureau American Community Survey. Twentieth-century Texas: a social and cultural history. University of North Texas Press. The Big Apple online etymological dictionary. Texas Talent Musicians Association. Texas Some positions Brownsville Carole Keeton Strayhorn. World Internet News Cooperative. The University of Texas System. Sam Houston State University. The Some positions Brownsville of Capping Non-Economic Damages to Control Rising Healthcare Costs: Panacea or False and Misleading Practice?
The Internet Journal of Healthcare Administration. Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research. The Texas Medical Center. The University of Texas M. University of Texas Health Science Center. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Texas Department of Transportation. Office of the Governor of Texas. International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association. Southern Business and Development.
For Travelers To Mexico" Press release. The Port of Houston Authority. University of Texas at Austin. Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, Texas. The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts, some positions Brownsville. Plano, Texas : Republic of Texas Press. The Chief of Executives of Texas: From Stephen F. Austin to John B. Austin, some positions Brownsville, Texas: Von Boeckmann-Jones Co.
Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press. The Warren Commission Report. The Spanish Frontier in North America.
Yale Western Americana Series. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. Sacrificed at the Alamo: Tragedy and Triumph in the Texas Revolution. Military History of Texas Series: Number Three. Abilene, Texas, TX: State House Press. Topics related to Texas, some positions Brownsville. The Lone Star State. Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks. National Register of Historic Places Sites. Austin — Round Rock.
Beaumont — Port Arthur. College Station — Bryan. Dallas some positions Brownsville Fort Worth — Arlington. Houston — The Woodlands — Sugar Land, Texas. McAllen — Edinburg — Mission. San Antonio — New Braunfels. See: List of counties in Texas.
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List of Indian reservations. Federated States of Micronesia. Nazism in the United States. Collapse of the Soviet Union. Water supply and sanitation. Code of Federal Regulations. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Public Health Service Corps. List of states and territories of the United States, Texas. Native American autonomous administrative divisions. United States Minor Outlying Islands.
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